Nathaniel Hawthorne On Beacon Hill

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Crowninshield's Wharf 1806 George Ropes, Jr.

A Chapter From "Nathaniel Hawthorne: Studies In The House Of The Seven Gables"

Thomas St. John

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In his notebook for Friday, July 13, 1838, Nathaniel Hawthorne recorded his notion to create a fiction about the destructive Judge Royall Tyler and his victim, Elizabeth Hunt Palmer:

"A political or other satire might be made by describing a show of wax-figures of the prominent public men; and, by the remarks of the showman and the spectators, their characters and public standing might be expressed. And the incident of Judge Tyler as related by E--- might be introduced."

In The House of the Seven Gables, Nathaniel Hawthorne creates the criminal and lascivious Judge Jaffrey Pyncheon. The real-life model for this fiction was the Brattleboro resident Chief Justice Royall Tyler. Judge Tyler died in August 1826 in the house at Park Place and Putney Road, after a twelve-year wasting away of his face beginning in 1814-- first the nose, then the jaw, and the eye.

Knowing that Royall Tyler was gruesomely forced to swallow his own sloughing tissues, and that another relation had died from a "lingering cancer of the eyes", Hawthorne made Judge Jaffrey Pyncheon the victim of an heriditary family curse---

God will give him blood to drink!


Royall Tyler With Cancer Lesions


Nathaniel Hawthorne's mother-in-law Elizabeth Palmer, Mrs. Nathaniel Peabody, wrote about Royall Tyler and his relations with her sister Mary Palmer, in the November 1833 "Christian Examiner" article entitled "Seduction"---

We hope we deserve to be called pure, in some good degree; but to us it did not seem to be pure for a polished man of literary eminence, to enter the sanctuary of sleeping innocence, of absolute childhood, for the basest purpose. We did see it, however, and though more than forty years have since passed by, we recollect with almost incredible vividness the shudder of terror and disgust which then shook our infant frame.

We have traced the career of that man. He seduced the woman, whose children he would have corrupted, caused the self-murder of a wife and mother, and afterwards married the daughter of that victim. He is dead, and the horrors of his mind, during a lingering disease, were the dreadful fruits of sin; but not of disgrace, for this man had a good standing in society.

Elizabeth Palmer, Mrs. Nathaniel Peabody, 1833 Sketch By Her Daughter Sophia Peabody.jpg

Elizabeth Palmer, Mrs. Nathaniel Peabody

Sketch By Her Daughter Sophia A. Peabody In 1833

Royall Tyler admitted to his youthfully arrogant and dissolute life, but he only regretted the limitations which his seedy past placed upon his career and later ambitions. The basic allegations, never disputed or denied, include his declaring his marital intentions upon Mary when she was only eight or nine years old, calling her "my little wife".

These intentions Tyler carried out aggressively with a secret marriage in 1794, designed to avoid the personal and political embarrassment of their child conceived out of wedlock.

Before this final marriage to his "bird in a cage"---as he referred to Mary---Tyler committed repeated "youthful indiscretions". His illegitimate son Royal Morse was born in 1779 to Katharine Morse, a well-known "character", the sweeper and cleaning woman in the Harvard College buildings. This fact was recorded by John Langdon Sibley, the long-time Harvard librarian and historian.

Tyler later fathered at least one daughter, Sophia, born in 1786, and possibly another daughter, Catherine, born in 1791, on Mary Palmer's mother Elizabeth Hunt, Mrs. Joseph Pearse Palmer, when her husband was absent for a considerable time. Tyler gained control over the defenseless wife by an act of debt fraud, making her financially dependant upon him.

The "self-murder" referred to by Elizabeth Palmer (Peabody) may be to an abortion of another child by Tyler. (Her reference to "the dreadful fruits of sin" may be to syphilis). Judge Tyler had excellent reasons to try to discourage biographers, saying, "I do not thank the author who pursues his hero into the recesses of domestic life, and exhibits the disgusting infirmities of our common nature."


Royall Tyler

Engraving By John J. Harley

Royall Tyler's political fame rests on his persecution of the ruined, fugitive farmers of Daniel Shay's Rebellion. Tyler's literary fame rests on "The Contrast" (1787), sometimes said to be "the first American play"---influenced by Richard Sheridan's "The School for Scandal", and by the repulsive ideas and specious arguments of Bernard de Mandeville, especially in "The Fable of the Bees; or Private Vices, Publick Benefits".

Royall Tyler's social fame rests on his eccentric, failed, and finally revengeful courtship of Abigail "Nabby" Adams, the daughter of the then-future President John Adams and his wife Abigail. Family biographers detail Tyler's emotional excesses and his manipulative, hypocritical, and ugly temper tantrums.

Following the same pattern of courting both mother and daughter with the husband/father absent, that he would use later with more success against the Palmer family, Royall Tyler aroused John Adams' resentment. The future President wrote to his wife Abigail, "I don't like this method of courting Mothers. There is something too fantastical and affected in this Business for me. It is not nature, modest virtuous noble nature.". Nabby escaped.

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Signet Classic Edition, Jacket Detail

Royall Tyler's father---Royall "Pug Sly" Tyler, Senior---was a successful politician who was well acquainted with the hypocrisies needed to gain public acclaim. Pug Sly or Pugsly had sent John Adams a copy of Mandeville's "The Fable of the Bees", with the comment that Mandeville "understood human nature and mankind better than any man that ever lived . . . Every man in public life ought to read that book to make him jealous and suspicious, &c.".

Pug Sly Tyler's hostile and alien system of thought, filled with hereditary hatreds, inevitably poisoned his son Royall Tyler with his own kind of ugly spiritual bankruptcy.

This spiritual emptiness enabled Judge Royall Tyler to compose these lines from his erotic burlesque entitled "The Origin of Evil: An Elegy", with Elizabeth Hunt Palmer cast as the seductive Eve with "her jetty locks"---

In naked beauty stood reveal'd,
Exposing every limb and feature,
Save those her jetty locks conceal'd.
Light and wanton curl'd her tresses
Where each sprouting lock should grow,
Her bosom, heaving for caresses,
Seem'd blushing berries cast on snow.

That great friend of Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville, fully comprehended the secrets in "The House of the Seven Gables", and so he asks in "Moby Dick; or, The Whale"---

Who's to doom, when the judge himself is dragged to the bar?

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Nathaniel Hawthorne's "The House of the Seven Gables" resolves an evil act and its consequences for the Palmer family---healing its wounds in the process---and so demonstrates why this American and Christian descendant of the Puritan settlers of New England is a truly great writer---

That light we see is burning in my hall.
How far that little candle throws his beams!
So shines a good deed in a naughty world.


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John Hunt House, Watertown, Massachusetts

Located Originally On Galen Street

Elizabeth Hunt Palmer

"The Watertown Beauty"

Elizabeth Hunt was born on October 1, 1755 to John Hunt and Ruth Fessenden.

Julian Hawthorne describes the connection between his mother Sophia Peabody and Elizabeth Hunt Palmer in "Nathaniel Hawthorne and His Wife"---

Mrs. Hawthorne was connected with the Hunts of Watertown through her mother, in the manner following: John Hunt, of Watertown, was the only son of Samuel Hunt, of Boston, and Mary Langdon. He graduated from Harvard College in 1734, and four years later married Ruth Fessenden. He had been designed for the ministry; but inherited property and left the pulpit.

He was a very popular man, and his wife was a beauty; they kept open house for the American officers during the Revolution. The marriage was blessed by many children. One of the sons (Samuel) was master of the Boston Latin School for thirty-six-years. The youngest, Thomas, left college and joined the army at the time of the battle of Bunker Hill.

One of the daughters, named Elizabeth, married Joseph P. Palmer, whose father was General Palmer of the Revolutionary army. Their daughter, also named Elizabeth, a gentle, ladylike person, highly cultivated, a student, and a most estimable character, married Dr. Nathaniel Peabody, of Salem, and thus became the mother of Sophia Amelia Peabody, the wife of Nathaniel Hawthorne.

The Hunts were Tory cavaliers in England, and the first emigrant was a refugee from Marston Moor. Leigh Hunt is said to have been of this same stock; but I do not know that there is any confirmation of the saying.

Colonel Sir William Hunt commanded the Royal Artillery at the siege of York. On July 2, 1644 at the battle of Marston Moor he was wounded and escaped on horseback. Pursued by Oliver Cromwell's men, Hunt took the name Ephraim and emigrated to Weymouth, Massachusetts.

Elizabeth---Betsey---had so many relatives in Boston on November 2, 1772 that she and Joseph Pearse Palmer "decided to escape a wedding at home" by taking a coach and four to Sandborn's Tavern in Hampden, New Hampshire. They were married by Rev. Paine Wingate. The wedding party included James Foster Candy, the Boston bookseller, Paul Revere, and Israel Keith.

I was married in my riding habit. This was made of silk calmet, light colored, trimmed with silver lace, vest of blue satin, the little spencer, which, according to the fashion of those days, set close to the body, sleeves and all, and was turned over to the lapels, with blue satin.

Elizabeth Palmer was a lively beauty, observed without fashionable weakness, or vapors. Joseph Palmer reportedly excelled all the guests in dancing the hornpipe. Soon after this, Betsey opened Salem's assembly ball with Royal Governor Thomas Hutchinson's son and always recalled that

My dress at this time, was a sky blue lutestring negligee, which style of dress those who are familiar with those times will remember but I cannot describe to your comprehension.

Two years later in Boston, Betsey was sitting and rocking the baby when she heard the gate and the door open, so she opened the parlor door and saw "three stout Indians".

She screamed, but did not then faint because she recognized Joseph's voice, this high Son of Liberty, saying "Don't be frightened, Betsey, it is I. We have only been making a little salt water tea." The other Indians were Stephen Bruce and Foster Candy. Following the Boston Tea Party, Joseph Palmer was on the British "black-list".

Betsey had a fine saddle horse, side saddle, and riding habit---all bridal gifts from Joseph Pearse Palmer. The horse was called "Rising Sun" and was bought for the purpose of teaching Betsey to ride. This animal was ruined when Joseph rode quickly to answer the call to arms following the Battle of Concord.

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View Of The Attack On Bunker Hill, With The Burning Of Charles Town

British Engraving, Circa 1783

On the day before the Battle of Bunker Hill, the young and worried Dr. Joseph Warren, a boarder in the Hunt house during the session of the Provincial Congress, asked the women in the Hunt family to prepare lint and linen bandages. Elizabeth Hunt Palmer recalled that---

I am sure that I liked him better than anybody . . . he was a handsome man and wore a tie wig. He had a fine color in his face and light blue eyes. He dined with us and while at dinner said "Come my little girl, drink a glass of wine with me for the last time for I am going on the Hill tomorrow and I shall never come off."

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View From Beacon Hill, June 17, 1775, Battle Of Bunker Hill

Drawing By A British Officer

Armed Transport H. M. S. Symmetry --- Frigate H. M. S. Glasgow

Her daughter Mary remembered an evening entertainment, with French officers in attendance---

I thought that mother looked beautiful in her white dress and beautiful hair and complexion and so did the officers.

Brattleboro historian Henry Burnham describes Elizabeth Hunt Palmer, recalling his seeing her in 1830, when she was seventy-five years old---

Tyler, when a gay gallant of 20, in scarlet coat and short clothes, entered the house of his friend, Mrs. Joseph Pearce Palmer, of Boston, and took from her arms her infant child (Mary Palmer) and said: "This child will become my wife." Time verified his prophecy, and her chil­dren, now venerable in years, and those who have gone, with honorable record, to their final sleep, have blessed her memory.

In the varied---in the elevated departments of human effort---in the pulpit, at the bar, mercantile and teachers' desk, her children have proved the character of their matern­al parentage. That mother who was little Mary Palmer, when seated in her mother's arms at the dining table of Gen. Joseph Warren, when he partook of his last dinner, and received the parting hand from his most intimate friends for the last time, before marching to his death on Bunker Hill.

This interesting event we learn, not for the first time, from the memoirs. We heard, near 1830, the aged Mrs. Palm­er relate the story. She said: "My hus­band was an early associate and intimate friend of Joseph Warren, therefore we, with other of his friends, were invited to dine with him", as he said, "for the last time."

Beautiful in her old age, seeming­ly, as "Madame Recamier," with swim­ming eyes and trembling lips, she contin­ued:

"Joseph Warren was an ardent pa­triot, an accomplished scholar, elegant in manners, universally beloved, and was the idol of Boston. After dinner, we all and each begged and prayed that he would not go to the battle-field; but vainly did we try to move him; he firmly believed the cause demanded the sacrifice of his life, and he must obey that demand. Amidst the flames, constant roar of artillery, and panic-stricken inhabitants, I fled from the city with my little Mary crying and cling­ing to my bosom."

There is no known portrait of Elizabeth Hunt Palmer, called "the Watertown Beauty". But Henry Burnham's comparison of her to Juliette, Madame Recamier may not be entirely accidental. The Hunt family and others complimented her for a resemblance to the celebrated Parisian socialite, and the aged Elizabeth told Henry Burnham that this was in her past days.

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Madame Recamier

"La Belle Juliette"

Juliette's jet black hair is certainly comparable to Mary Palmer Tyler's locks, and Mary may have inherited her mother Elizabeth's hair color. Henry Burnham's reference to Elizabeth's "swimming eyes" in her old age may have indicated a condition which Nathaniel Hawthorne described at length as Hepzibah Pyncheon's unfortunate scowl.

Royall Tyler composed an erotic burlesque called "The Origin of Evil: An Elegy", in which he cast Elizabeth Hunt Palmer as a seductive Eve, with "her jetty locks".

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Sophia Peabody Drawing

Possibly Elizabeth Hunt Palmer In 1828

In this sketch by Sophia Peabody, an elderly woman seated on a chair seems to scowl or frown in concentration upon a book or some piece work. It would be quite natural for Sophia to draw her grandmother, Elizabeth Hunt Palmer, in the fashion that she also drew her mother Elizabeth Palmer. The seated woman's hair is apparently black.

Elizabeth Hunt Palmer was seventy-two or seventy-three years old in the summer of 1828, when Sophia visited Brattleboro for several weeks during July and August.

Some time after Royall Tyler's death in 1826 and before 1830---possibly following Sophia Peabody's visit in 1828--- Elizabeth Hunt Palmer moved to Brattleboro, Vermont. She may have resided with her daughter, Mary Palmer Tyler, but it is also likely that she lived with her first cousin William Fessenden's widow Patty Holbrook Fessenden, at the old Fessenden bookstore on Main Street---

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William Fessenden Bookstore, American House

William Fessenden was the fledgling printer in Brattleboro who had hired Elizabeth Hunt Palmer's son Edward as an apprentice in 1797, shortly before Edward drowned in the Connecticut River. When William died suddenly of apoplexy in 1815, his older brother Thomas Green Fessenden became the editor of the Brattleboro newspaper "The Reporter".

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Thomas Green Fessenden

Thomas Green Fessenden was the author of the popular satirical poem "Terrible Tractoration!" and later the editor of "The New England Farmer". Nathaniel Hawthorne boarded with the family of Thomas Green Fessenden in Boston at No. 53 Hancock Street, beginning in January 1836. Hancock Street is located immediately west from Beacon Hill.

Thomas Fessenden died on November 11, 1837 and Hawthorne attended his funeral in Mount Auburn Cemetery. Hawthorne was composing a tribute to his friend for the "Atlantic Monthly" when Elizabeth Hunt Palmer died in Brattleboro on January 8, 1838, only two months after her cousin.

She was buried in the Prospect Hill Cemetery. Her gravestone has been etched and scoured by acid rain, but the pitted lettering remains---

Relict of
Joseph P. Palmer
Jan. 8 1838
aged 83 Years.


Elizabeth Hunt Palmer---Hepzibah Pyncheon

Nathaniel Hawthorne soon wrote in his Notebook entry for July 13, 1838---

A political or other satire might be made by describing a show of wax-figures of the prominent public men; and, by the remarks of the showman and the spectators, their characters and public standing might be expressed. And the incident of Judge Tyler as related by E--- might be introduced.

Elizabeth Hunt Palmer's more fitting memorial is as Hepzibah Pyncheon in "The House of the Seven Gables", in the Beacon Street, "Half-way down a by-street in one of our New England towns . . ."

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The Royall Tyler house still stands at 10 Park Place, Brattleboro, Vermont. Sophia Peabody visited this house in 1828, long before her marriage. Her sister Elizabeth Palmer Peabody visited during the week of July 14, 1854.


Mary Palmer Tyler

Henry David Thoreau likely met Mary Palmer Tyler here in 1856, along with her neighbor Mrs. Rev. Addison Brown. Mary Palmer Tyler lived in the house until her death in 1866. Una Hawthorne saw this house in May 1868. She knew the story about the drowning of her kinsman Edward Palmer in 1797, and she almost certainly visited the Prospect Hill Cemetery.

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Mary Palmer Tyler, Amelia Sophia Tyler


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William Price, Map Of Boston 1743

The John Turner Mansion In Boston

The central conflict in "The House of the Seven Gables" is between Hepzibah Pyncheon and the conniving Jaffrey Pyncheon. Royall Tyler is the model for Jaffrey, and Elizabeth Hunt Palmer became Hepzibah. And the historic house that inspired Nathaniel Hawthorne's House of the Seven Gables is Elizabeth Hunt Palmer's boardinghouse at the corner of Beacon Street and School Street in Boston.

Is there evidence for this? Yes. The evidence is in the Boston land records for Robert Turner, for his son-in-law Capt. John Fayerweather, and his sons Capt. John Turner, Joseph, and Ephraim.

Nathaniel Hawthorne opens his romance with this description: "Half-way down a by-street of one of our New England towns. . .". Beacon Street and School Street in Hawthorne's day formed the by-street from Charles Street to Tremont Street.

Turner Street in Salem, however, was always a dead-end into the harbor, and never a by-street between two greater thoroughfares.

Also in Turner Street, Hepzibah's cent shop at the Seven Gables is entirely at street level. But in "The House of the Seven Gables", Hawthorne quite unselfconsciously describes a wide flight of steps from Pyncheon Street up to the cent shop doors---

"As the child went down the steps, a gentleman ascended them, and made his entrance into the shop." Hawthorne here is not picturing to himself any Salem house, but Elizabeth Hunt Palmer's boarding house store, set into the rising ground that forms Beacon Hill. Such long front lawn steps were common on Beacon Hill.

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Ancient Pasture Fence Lines On Beacon Hill

Allen Chamberlain 1925 Map In Detail

Allen Chamberlain describes Robert Turner's land---

Robert Turner was an early investor in Beacon Hill realty. In all he acquired about eight acres, most of which lay along the south slope of the ridge above Beacon Street as far west as the head of Park Street. At that point his land bounded on a thirty-foot public way leading to the beacon, more or less on the lines of the present foot-passage to and through the East Wing of the State House, and substantially as shown on the map. The remainder of his holdings surrounded the summit of the Hill, abutting west to within nineteen feet of Hancock Street, and following in a general way the line of Mount Vernon Street, where it passes under the State House archway, on the south. On the very top of the Hill an area six rods square had been reserved as a becon site since 1634-35, and this Turner's land seems to have surrounded. Incidentally Turner was sergeant of the colonial militia, and because of this fact, and by reason of his near-by dwelling, it has been assumed by some that he may have been the first warden in charge of the beacon. His son-in-law, John Fairweather, eventually came to own much of this property.

Robert Turner was admitted to the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company in 1640. For some time before July 25,1659 Turner is ranked Lieutenant.

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View From Hancock's Pasture

The Great Tree, The Old Elm

Mistress Ann Hibbins Hanged For A Witch Here On June 19, 1656

Samuel Hill Engraving 1790

Nathaniel Ingersoll Bowditch's "Gleaner" article in the Boston Evening Transcript in 1855 also descibes Robert Turner's land---

Robert Turner. . . who is found in the colony as early as 1637, seems to have gradually extended his pasture up the slopes of the hill, so that he owned eight acres near the summit at his death, his land stretching westerly nearly to Hancock Street. The oldest deed from the town to him bears date 1670. His son John sold to Samuel Shrimpton, in 1673, a gore of what is now the State-House lot, bounded east on the way leading from the Training-field to the Sentry Hill: and this way, then thirty feet wide, makes the beginning of that part of the present Mount Vernon Street, which on the modern maps bends at a right angle and joins Beacon Street. John Turner dying in 1681, his executors sold his land to the same Shrimpton, who thus acquired "all Beacon Hill."

The noted Devonshire stroller, Bampfylde Moore Carew described this land---

Mr. Carew was surprised at the grandeur of it; and seeing a green hill, at the end of the great street, much like Glastonbury Torr, he goes up it, and had a most beautiful prospect of the city from the top of it, where was placed the mast of a ship, with pullies to draw up a lighted barrel of tar, to alarm the country, in case of an invasion.

Samuel Barber in his "Boston Common; A Diary of Notable Events, Incidents, and Neighboring Occurrences" says that this gore was "a small strip of land (23 x 180)". When John Turner died in 1681 his executor was empowered to sell his "house and land on the upper end of the Common or Training Field and the land on Beacon Hill".

Annie Haven Thwing describes the Beacon Hill by-street---

According to the Book of Possessions the estates on Beacon Street were in the New Field, and bordered on the Common. In 1640 it was "ordered that the street from Atherton Haugh's be laid out to the Centry Hill." This became School Street east of Tremont Street, but it included Beacon Street west of Tremont Street . . . It was called "the highway leading into the common," "the highway to John Turner's house," "the way between the house of the late John Turner and the almshouse"; In 1708 called "Beacon Street," from the corner of Somerset Street. The rest was included in School Street.

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Capt. Cyprian Southack's 1775 Map

Plan Of The Town Of Boston In New England

The almshouse stood at the corner of present-day Park Street and Beacon Street, across from the State House. The corner of Tremont Street and School Street, or possibly the crook in the lane at the meeting of School Street with Beacon, was called "Fairweather's Corner"---the owner Fairweather being Robert Turner's son-in-law John Fayerweather. "Centry Hill" is the early name, Sentry Hill, for the sentry or beacon that stood there.

Robert Turner was "Ordered to make a highway from Elder James Penn's dwelling to Sentry Hill" on April 2, 1658. James Penn owned the lot on the northwest corner of Tremont and Beacon Streets---seventy feel fronting Tremont, one hundred and fifty feet along Beacon, with a pear tree standing thereon.

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John Turner Mansion In Beacon Street In Boston

1722, 1728, 1769

Elizabeth Hunt and Joseph Pearce Palmer operated a boardinghouse on the north side of Beacon Street during 1784-1785 after leaving Watertown, Massachusetts, and again, at the same place, during 1787-1789 shortly before leaving Boston. This house is pictured on several old Boston maps which were drawn in 1722, 1728, and 1769, engraved for the surveyor Capt. John Bonner and for William Burgess.

All three maps show the ancient house's three gables that face to the south---the remaining gables are not represented. The retired ships captain John Bonner would know from experience, the value of accuracy in charts and maps.


Mary Palmer, the widow of Judge Royall Tyler, recalled living in her grandmother Elizabeth Hunt Palmer's boarding house---"We lived in a house which made the corner of School Street and Beacon Street, opposite the splendid dwellings of Mr. Samuel Phillips and Gov. Bowdoin."

Governor James Bowdoin and the Palmers had gardens that ran back toward Somerset Court, later Ashburton Place---"Our garden and his were only separated by a board fence . . ." Mary also added that School Street, in the eighteenth century, ran up Beacon Hill only so far as the present Somerset Street---which was not laid out until 1801 by a gentleman from Somerset, Massachusetts.

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Capt. John Bonner's 1722 Map Of Boston

Lines Locate Future Garden Board Fence And Somerset Street

George Palmer was born in this boarding house on September 4, 1788.

Elizabeth Hunt Palmer resented her boarder Royall Tyler gaining a financial interest in her boardinghouse by paying her debts. She was forced to accept his money when all of her creditors suddenly without warning descended upon her all at once---while her husband was away on business in Maine.

Could this situation have been engineered by Royall Tyler? This unstable young lawyer was experienced with debt collection, beginning with his dunning of the former clients of John Adams---who soon came to distrust him, both professionally and personally. Tyler also used debt persecution for political gain in 1787 by hounding the hapless and embattled farmers of Daniel Shay's Rebellion, tracking the fugitives all the way to Vermont.

Mary Palmer Tyler gives here either a child's innocent witness to her husband Royall Tyler's "rescue" of the Palmer family from the circling pack of organized creditors, or a somewhat ingenious accounting that exonerates her spouse---

She immediately wrote to my father, but there were no steamboats or railways then and his business could not be left instantly, in fact many weeks elapsed and he did not come. At length, one day, an officer came with a writ, the grocer would wait no longer, and the baker was out of patience, and several other petty demands had agreed to join and send in their claims all at once. Poor mother was frightened and distressed, we children expected to be all carried off to jail. Mother wept and entreated, assuring the officer that all would be paid when her husband came home, who was expected every day. All in vain, their duty was to have security somehow or other. I shall never forget the joy with which I heard your blessed father's footstep on the hall floor. I flew to him exclaiming, 'Oh, Mr. Tyler, how glad I am to see you. You will help us, I know.'

The arrival of "our deliverer" here seems to be all too dramatically well timed, like the rehearsed scene from a stage play, or like the melodramas that Tyler absorbed and even wrote. "The Contrast" between good and evil! Who will play the cad who convinces the creditors to strike in unison at the damsel in distress? Elizabeth Hunt Palmer is "collapsed and weeping" on her own doorstep---

Now right on cue down the School Street house stairs he comes, clanking his "handful of silver coins", the future Chief Justice of the Vermont Supreme Court---Royall Tyler. Encore! Tres chic!

Nathaniel Hawthorne arranges the furniture in "The House of the Seven Gables" so that his reader is free to see the worst that may be inferred---that Royall Tyler committed the crime of debt fraud against Elizabeth Hunt Palmer, then emotionally blackmailed her into sex that was complicated by birth, then deserted her, stealing away her daughter with a secret marriage, and finally retreating to safety in Vermont---counting upon his victims to remain silent in order to avoid further crippling of the broken Palmer family by scandal.

Royall Tyler committed these crimes. "The Contrast" here between the good, and the evilly inclined, not only struck Nathaniel Hawthorne's sense of the moral picturesque---it deeply angered him. In "The House of the Seven Gables", Hawthorne proceeds to prove his own precept, to "Be true! Be true! Be true! Show freely to the world, if not your worst, yet some trait whereby the worst may be inferred!"


Richard Cranch.jpg

Richard Cranch

Joseph Palmer And Richard Cranch

Watch-Makers On School Street, Boston

Richard Cranch was born October 26, 1726, at Kingsbridge, Devonshire, England, a seaport town near Exeter. He was the youngest son of John Cranch and Elizabeth Pearse, and the grandson of Andrew Cranch and Ebuff his first wife, and great-grandson of Richard Cranch, staunch Puritan.

The Cranch family was in engaged chiefly in woolen manufacture, with prosperous shoemakers, grocers, and farmers as well. Richard was bound as an apprentice to a maker of wool-cards, but at the age of twenty, purchased the remainder of his time and came to America in the large ship "Wilmington" with his sister Mary and his brother-in-law Joseph Palmer, arriving in Boston on November 2, 1746.

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Joseph Palmer

Portrait By John Singleton Copley

During the following year, accordingly, Richard Cranch is named as a wool card maker with a shop "well up School Street". Later he became a watch-maker with Joseph Palmer, also in this shop on the south side of School Street, and "nearly opposite where the City Hall now stands".

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King's Chapel, Boston Latin School, French Church

Richard Cranch And Joseph Palmer's Shop

William Price Map Of Boston 1743

This shop is also described as standing "next door above the French Meetinghouse". This small, brick "French Church" served Huguenot families in Boston such as Paul Revere's. It stood on the south side of School Street, between present Province and Washington Streets. Richard Cranch sold his watchmaker's shop in 1755.

Richard Cranch "left Boston owing to the prevalence of the Small-pox" during 1750, during the last year for the Old King's Chapel at School and Tremont Streets---

Old King's Chapel, Boston, School And Tremont, Built Autumn 1688.jpg

Old King's Chapel Before 1751

Andrew Faneuil Mansion, Beacon Hill

Joseph Pearse Palmer and Elizabeth Hunt attended this church during 1787 until 1789, possessing Pew No. 18. The original interior of the Old Chapel had by then acquired a stone exterior that was added following 1750, looking then as it does now.

The Germantown Glassworks in Braintree, later Quincy, Massachusetts was the first practical industrial development in colonial America, with Benjamin Franklin advising its guiding spirit Joseph Crellius, and personally investing in eight house lots. Joseph Palmer and Richard Cranch leased land from Colonel Joseph Quincy on August 24, 1750 and the works commenced operations.

German glass-blowers housed in a large, round building, made wine seals and "glass bottles of all capacities". This wine bottle seal labelled "Thomas Hutchinson Esq. 1755" was crafted imperfectly and rejected, shortly before the May 28, 1755 fire that destroyed everything---

Thomas Hutchinson, 1755 Wine Bottle Seal, Germantown Glassworks.jpg

Joseph Palmer's holdings in Germantown also included salt factories, a chocolate factory, and a spermaceti candle works. German stocking weavers associated with Boston's Peter Etter also labored in Germantown.

Another proprietor in Joseph Palmer & Co. was Isaac Winslow, a nominal Loyalist who finally fled to Nova Scotia when his uncle Richard Clarke was discovered in an untimely manner to be a consignee for tea in Boston.

This shop bill was executed for Joseph Palmer & Co. by Nathaniel Hurd, a Boston goldsmith and engraver some time before his death in 1777---

Joseph Palmer, Shop Bill, Spermacetti Candles.jpg

Germantown products were sold by the watch repairer Richard Cranch in the store on School Street until March 6, 1760, when he sold out his interests to Joseph Palmer, who maintained two stores on the Long Wharf with his warehouses, all managed by his son Joseph Pearse Palmer---

Long Wharf, Boston, 1774, Detail From Paul Revere Engraving, Royal American Magazine.jpg

Boston Long Wharf In 1774

Engraving In Detail By Paul Revere

Richard Cranch was admitted on March 5, 1749 to the West Church, Boston, and married on November 25, 1762, Mary Smith, the daughter of Rev. William and Elizabeth Quincy of Weymouth. She died on October 17, 1811, the day following her husband's death. Richard Cranch introduced his sister-in-law, Abigail Smith, to John Adams.

This advertisement appears in the Boston Newsletter for April 13, 1775---

Richard Cranch, Watchmaker, hereby informs his customers that he has removed from his house near the Mill-Bridge, Boston, to a house in Braintree, nearly opposite the Rev. Mr. Winslow's Church, a few rods south of Mr. Brackett's Tavern, where he proposes carrying on the watch-makers business as usual. And as he has a number of watches in his hands, belonging to his customers, he desires such as cannot conveniently call for them at his house in Braintree to leave a line for him at the Shop of Messieurs Nathaniel & Joseph Cranch, who will convey the same and receive the watches for the owners as soon as they are finished.

Joseph Cranch was the son of Richard Cranch. Nathaniel Cranch became the namesake for Nathaniel Cranch Peabody, the younger brother of Sophia Amelia Peabody, Mrs. Nathaniel Hawthorne. Nathaniel C. Peabody was the family historian who published Richard Cranch's handwritten memorandum dated April 11, 1805 in the New England Historical Genealogical Register, Volume 27 for January 1873.

John Adams greatly respected his brother-in-law Richard Cranch, as seen in this letter posted from Philadelphia on September 18, 1774---

To Mr. Richard Cranch Boston favoured by Mr. Revere

My dear Brother

I thank you most kindly for your obliging Letter. And beg the Continuance of your Correspondence. Every Line from Boston is a Cordial, and of great Use to us in our Business. It is a grief to my Heart that I cannot write to my Friends so often and particularly as I wish. But Politicks I cant write, in Honour. I send the Votes of Yesterday, which are ordered to be printed, and this is the only Thing which we are yet at Liberty to mention even to the People out of Doors here. -- The Congress will support Boston and the Massachusetts or Perish with them. But they earnestly wish that Blood may be spared if possible, and all Ruptures with the Troops avoided. Break open my Letters to my Wife, and then send them as soon as possible.

John Adams

My Love to sister, the Children and every Body.

Richard Cranch, Four Dollar Bank Note, 1780.jpg

Guaranty Note Countersigned By Richard Cranch

Aut mors aut vita decora

Either death or an honorable life.

Richard Cranch was concerned with the difficulties encountered by his brother-in-law John Adams in his efforts to release his daughter Abigail from the unwelcome attentions of the interloper Royall Tyler, who appeared by turns dissipated, profligate, morbid, aggressively cheerful, excessively self-dramatizing.

John Adams hired Royall Tyler to collect debts from his former law practice clients. Adams was a stern judge who did not tolerate Royall Tyler's stealing his family's personal correspondence before it was opened, or his displaying such letters openly in local taverns.

John Adams' friend and associate Benjamin Guild, who operated the Boston Book Store in Cornhill, referred to these thefts as "a large breach of trust". One letter that Tyler concealed until forced to return it, had been addressed by John Adams' daughter Abigail to Elizabeth Hunt Palmer.

Abigail, who preferred to be called Amelia at that time, later Nabby, was a little shy, yet independent, charming, witty, and spoke in a low, precise voice. John Adams thought that this portrait captured her drollery and modesty---

Abigail Adams, July 1785, Portrait By Mather Brown.jpg

Abigail Adams, Called Amelia, Later Nabby

The name Amelia, which Abigail took for her signature, was cherished and kept in the Palmer family, from Amelia Palmer, through to Sophia Amelia Peabody, Mrs. Nathaniel Hawthorne.

When Richard Cranch died, John Adams said, "Never shall I see his like again. An invariable friend for sixty years."


King's Chapel, Latin School, Patty Curtis Clark's Boarding House, School Street.jpg

King's Chapel, Boston Latin School, James Otis House

Later Widow Martha "Patty" Clarke's Boarding House

Martha "Patty" Curtis

Mrs. Capt. Samuel Clarke And Mrs. Rev. Dr. James Freeman

Joseph Pearse Palmer and Elizabeth Hunt lived in many different places in Boston besides the house at the crook in the lane where School Street meets Beacon Street. Frederick Tupper provides this list, including "Mrs. Clark's house"---

Many were the Boston homes of the Palmers during the decade of eighties: in 1780-1782 a house near the West Church; then, after leaving Germantown in 1784, one on the corner of Beacon and School Streets (which, in the eighteenth century, ran as far as the present Somerset St., not laid out until 1801) "opposite Mr. (Samuel) Phillips," then Mrs. Clark's house "on School St., next but one to Stone Chapel," (owned once by James Otis), then a large house with a cupola near Fort Hill, (1786-1788), then a house next to Gov. Bowdoin's on Beacon Hill (1788-1789). During the last year, 1789-1790, the family was "caged in a small house in an alley that led from Cornhill into Brattle Sq."

Martha Curtis was born on July 20, 1755, the daughter of Obadiah Curtis and Martha Buckminster. Obadiah was a wheelwright in the Boston area. He was one of the older participants of the Boston Tea Party, and he did not rightly comply with the rules of the protest. The wheelwright kept a pinch of tea as a souvenir, making it into a teabag.

Martha Curtis' first husband was Captain Samuel Clarke, and their son Samuel Clarke, Jr. was born in 1779 in the house on the north side of School Street. Samuel Clarke, Sr. died in 1780 when his son was one year old, the future Dr. Samuel Clarke and husband-to-be of Rebecca Parker Hull.

The widowed Martha later, in July, 1788, married the Rev. Dr. James Freeman, then presiding over King's Chapel. Martha is described as "a woman of strong will and quick temper" who was affectionate and generous to the poor. Her grandson, Thomas Curtis Clarke, remembered that "She taught me to read and to speak the truth."

Thomas Curtis, the Boston merchant and ship owner was her brother, who "lived on the highest point of Somerset Street, next to the house of his partner, Caleb Loring". The widow's mother, Martha Buckminster Curtis, conducted a shop for English good at the corner of Washington and Bromfield Streets.

The entire Clarke family attended the Boston Latin School next door, where Samuel Hunt, the brother of Elizabeth Hunt Palmer, taught for almost forty years.

The family tradition was that the first American ancestor was Thomas Clarke of Plymouth, England, who came over as Mate on the "Mayflower", then returned to England in that ship, and emigrated again as a passenger on the "Anne" and settled in Plymouth, Massachusetts.



Rebecca Parker Hull

Mrs. Samuel Clarke, Junior

Rebecca Parker Hull Clarke

Nathaniel Hawthorne's landlady at the boarding house---known widely as "Clarke's Place" at No. 3 Somerset Court, was Rebecca Parker Hull, the widow of Samuel Clarke, Junior.

As a youngster, Samuel Clarke, Jr. visited the Palmer family in Germantown, and later boarded with Elizabeth Hunt Palmer and Joseph Pearse Palmer in Boston on School Street with Martha "Patty" Curtis Clarke, one door east from the Latin School.

Rebecca Clarke, a notorious raconteur, doubtless informed Hawthorne that her ancestor-by-marriage Captain Thomas Clarke was also the ancestor of the author's mother Elizabeth Clarke Manning, and that the first house or tenement of Thomas Clarke lay one door south from Robert Turner's land, possibly his pasture---

Robert Turner Anchor Tavern, Thomas Clarke House, 1676.jpg

Charles Shaw describes the streets and lanes in this part of Boston in his book, which was delayed publication until 1817, "A Topographical and Historical Description of Boston: From the First Settlement of the Town to the Present Period, with Some Account of its Environs"---

Charles Shaw, A Topographical And Historical Description Of Boston, 1817.jpg

Thomas Clarke's house stood on Summer Street, and his other buildings were southwest from Union Street, with Minot's Court running between them. Capt. Clarke owned the lot for his pewter shop in the Corn-hill from 1676. His shop stood on the west side of present Washington Street, almost half way from School Street to Court Street, and standing at a slight crook in the road. The first surviving record that names Thomas Clarke as a pewterer in Boston is from 1683.

Nathaniel Hawthorne's publisher in Boston was William D. Ticknor & Co., with James T. Fields. This company was housed in an antiquated structure that stood upon the land adjoining Robert Turner's lot next north. Ticknor's publishing building later became "The Old Corner Bookstore"---

William D. Ticknor, Corner Store, Washington, School Streets, February 21, 1857, Maturin Murray Ballou's Pictorial.jpg

School Street And Washington Street Northwest Corner

Engraving By William J. Peirce

Maturin Murray Ballou's Pictorial, February 21, 1857

Nathaniel Hawthorne was aware that his publisher's land was first owned by William Hutchinson in 1634, his lot extending up School Street so far as the later Old City Hall. Hutchinson's wife was Ann Marbury, the notorious Mrs. Anne Hutchinson, who precipitated the theological Antinomian controversy, which led to that family's removal in 1638. Their house stood on this corner until the great October 1711 fire.

Thomas Clarke and Edward Hutchinson were both named as administrators for the estate of Ann Hibbins, who was executed as a witch on June 19, 1656 at the Great Tree on the Boston Common. Her husband William Hibbins had married for his first wife, Hester Bellingham.

Ann Hibbins was fictionalized in Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter. In the novel, the central character, Hester Prynne, who has been convicted of adultery and sentenced to wearing the letter "A" upon her outer garment, comes in frequent contact with the witch, Mistress Hibbins. Hawthorne's depiction of Hibbins has been analyzed by literary critics, who have determined that in the novel she, being a witch, represented for Prynne "a rejected possibility of dealing with social stigma". According to one analysis, "Hibbins embodies the stereotype of the aged witch who tries to use Hester's stigma, the scarlet "A", as an item to seduce Hester to join the Covenant with the Devil." This is presented, in contrast, by the fictional depiction of Ann Hutchinson, who represents the embodiment of an angel.

Old Corner Bookstore, Washington And School Streets, William D. Ticknor.jpg

Rebecca Parker Hull (Clarke) had accepted Nathaniel Hawthorne as her boarder, although it had been several years since she had closed regular business operations. Her "Clarke's Place" was famous as the major Boston Transcendentalist meeting place which hosted the "Conversations" of Margaret Fuller.

Among her former tenants had been two of the future sisters-in-law for Nathaniel---Elizabeth Peabody and Mary Peabody, later Mrs. Horace Mann. When Nathaniel Hawthorne encountered Rebecca, this raconteur, what did he learn from her about Beacon and School Street history?

William Burgis 1728 Map, Beacon Hill, School Street.jpg

William Burgis 1728 Map

Rebecca Parker Hull was the daughter of Gen. William Hull, the Revolutionary War hero who had narrowly escaped hanging for the "treason" of surrendering the fort at Detroit during the War of 1812. Rebecca's children were the Rev. James Freeman Clarke and the artist Sarah Freeman Clarke.

Rev. James Clarke married Nathaniel and Sophia in 1842, and delivered Hawthorne's funeral tribute in Concord in 1864. When James Freeman Clarke built a new chapel for his Church of the Disciples on Freeman Place in 1848, it was on land formerly owned by Robert Turner.

Thomas Clarke Family History Chart.jpg


Hepzibah Clarke

The Hepzibah Pyncheon character is also based, in a minor way, on another Hawthorne kinswoman named Hepzibah Clarke, Mrs. James Swan. James Swan had spent twenty-two years in a Paris prison for debt, and when he was finally released, he died shortly therafter. With his penchant for the "moral picturesque," Hawthorne may have associated Swan with his Clifford Pyncheon.

Hepzibah Clarke---the granddaughter and daughter of Hepzibah Williams and Hepzibah Barrett, and the mother of Hepzibah Swan---was noted for her distinctive black lace-trimmed turban. The outdated turban is characteristic of the proprietress of the Seven Gables. Both Hepzibah Clark and Hawthorne's mother, Elizabeth Clarke Manning, shared the common ancestor Thomas Clarke of Ipswich, Massachusetts.


Tremont House, William James Bennett, Print, Circa 1838.png

The Tremont House

William James Bennett Print

Nathaniel Hawthorne On Beacon Hill

While courting Sophia Amelia Peabody, the granddaughter of Elizabeth Hunt Palmer, Nathaniel Hawthorne lived at four places within one city block of this ancient gabled house---first, at the Tremont House on the southwest corner of School Street and Tremont, then at No. 53 Hancock Street, and at No. 3 Somerset Court from March 1838 to late October 1839.

George Harvey, Reaping On Boston Common.jpg

George Harvey, Reaping On Boston Common

Drawing By Mary Jane Derby, 1823, Back Bay, Charles Street, The Common.jpg

Mary Jane Derby, Drawing In 1823

Charles Street, The Boston Commons, Back Bay, Roxbury Hills

In late October 1839, the young lawyer and Unitarian George Stillman Hillard invited Hawthorne to lodge at No. 54 Pinckney Street, just around the corner from Charles Street. Hillard was a regular at Rebecca Clarke's boarding house in the days before his marriage to Sophia Peabody's friend, Susan Howe, in 1835.

Hawthorne walked along Somerset Street, Beacon Street, and School Street on his way to work at the Boston Custom House, and back again to Somerset Court---which now forms the east end of Ashburton Place.

Nathaniel Hawthorne must have been curious about this gabled house. The Turner family had owned the Beacon Hill land. Did Hawthorne learn that Captain John Turner visited his sister Sarah in this house? Could he be intrigued, remembering his visits to his cousin Susannah Ingersoll's house in Salem?

Hawthorne may be describing the specific architectural ornamentation of the John Turner's Boston house, and the Palmer boardinghouse, with this description---

Its whole visible exterior was ornamented with quaint figures, conceived in the grotesqueness of a Gothic fancy, and drawn or stamped in the glittering plaster, composed of lime, pebbles, and bits of glass, with which the wood-work of the walls was overspread. . . .On the triangular portion of the gable that fronted next the street, was a dial . . .on which the sun was still marking the passage of the first bright hour. . .

It also seems likely that the Turner family mansion on Beacon Hill had an arched window---to which Hawthorne devotes an entire chapter in his romance. Clifford climbs---

to the second story of the house, where, at the termination of a wide entry, there was an arched window of uncommonly large dimensions, shaded by a pair of curtains. It opened above the porch, where there had formerly been a balcony, the balustrade of which had long since gone to decay, and been removed.

No arched window has ever been located at the Turner mansion in Salem.

Nathaniel Hawthorne also implies the presence of a secret staircase in his romance, which allows Clifford to appear unexpectedly to Hepzibah immediately after Judge Pyncheon's death. There is the possibility that John Turner's mansion on Beacon Hill in Boston had such a concealed staircase.

Elizabeth Hunt Palmer died on January 8, 1838 in Brattleboro, Vermont---only two months after the death of her first cousin Thomas Green Fessenden in Boston, and six months before Hawthorne referred in his notebook on July 13, 1838 to the "incident" about "Judge Tyler."

Since Hawthorne was writing the tribute to his Boston friend Thomas G. Fessenden at this time for the "Atlantic Monthly", he almost certainly heard about the destructive Judge Royall Tyler from the Clarke and Peabody family descendants.


Boston Common, State House, Engraving By A. Bowen, Sr., After Nathaniel Dearborn, Circa 1814, 1817.png

Elizabeth Palmer Peabody On Beacon Hill In 1822

Another source of information for Hawthorne about this Beacon Hill neighborhood was Elizabeth Palmer Peabody---Hawthorne's future sister-in-law. Early in 1822, the Boston activist Eliza Lee Cabot had helped Elizabeth to "gather a school" to serve the social elect. Elizabeth's first school in Boston was located at the corner of Hancock Street and Mount Vernon Street.

Elizabeth resided with the family of Augustus Peabody, Esq., a Boston Counsellor at law, beginning in May 1822, in their five-story townhouse near the copper-plated State House on Beacon Hill, and towering above the old Governor Hancock mansion.

Augustus Peabody purchased land in Mount Vernon Street on June 14, 1824, the lot running easterly "to the State House yard, or to what was Hancock Avenue until the State obliterated that footway in 1915" in preparation for the new West Wing. Augustus Peabody soon sold this land, in April 1825.

Her room on the east end of the fifth floor commanded an excellent prospect easterly toward "all of Boston. . .a perfect view of the beautiful harbour with its islands and vessels". The Bulfinch estate gardens lay directly below Elizabeth's room.

Elizabeth may have seen old John Turner's gabled mansion below also, where her grandmother Elizabeth Hunt Palmer had conducted her School Street boardinghouse. Elizabeth may also have seen the Rev. John Cotton house, which stood until 1835. And the ridge that connected Cotton Hill to Beacon Hill was not levelled until 1845, so this high land was observed by Nathaniel Hawthorne as well.


John Turner House, Before 1900.jpg

John Turner House, Circa 1885

Two Landmarks And Lost Bearings

The Salem mansion that became known as "The House of the Seven Gables" had lost all but three of its original gables long before the visits by Nathaniel Hawthorne. The first known photograph was taken in 1857, showing these three gables. It is not known if this mansion ever had seven gables at any one particular time.

Hathaway House 1683, Captain John Turner House, Turner Street, Salem, Circa 1911.jpg

James Hooper House 1683, Captain John Turner House, Circa 1911

John Turner House, Turner Street, Salem, Massachusetts.jpg

Captain John Turner House

James Hooper House

In order to garner more tourist dollars as a matter of stated policy, the owner Caroline O. Emmerton hired the controversial Boston architect Joseph Everett Chandler in 1909 to add all the "missing" gables---including one which was subsequently built in the wrong place---

When a new porch was built, the building ended up
with eight gables rather than the planned seven.

The "one story appendage" was added in 1915 to meet the tourists' expectations to find Hepzibah Pyncheon's "cent shop". Historical authenticity was violated in the enlargement of the original east room of the 1668 house, which had also already been divided in 1909.

A "secret staircase" was re-discovered in 1888 when the owner Henry Upton removed the ancient central chimney---Nathaniel Hawthorne had implied the presence of such a staircase in his "The House of the Seven Gables", although he did not describe it.

Architect Joseph E. Chandler left no written or photographic record of the evidence which he found. He simply had little antiquarian interest or concern for evidence. He destroyed historic records for Captain John Turner's mansion in Salem. In 1907 Chandler destroyed the former living quarters of Paul Revere when he removed the third floor of this silversmith patriot's house in North Boston.


Nathaniel Hawthorne visited his second cousin Susannah Ingersoll at this Salem mansion built in 1668 by Captain John Turner.

Susannah Ingersoll's widowed mother Susannah (Hathorne) Ingersoll died in 1811 and Susannah Ingersoll found herself in an inheritance battle with her cousins in the family of her maternal uncle Colonel John Hathorne.

John Turner House, Turner Street, Circa 1915.jpg

John Turner House, Circa 1915

Susannah thought that possession was nine-tenths of the law, and she refused to depart the premises. The subsequent physical altercation at the house attracted the attention of the Rev. William Bentley, who came to Susannah Ingersoll's rescue---

This morning I was with her only daughter who has been beset by the Col's family with the ferocity of tigers. They insisted upon entrance into the house and apartments. The daughter had swooned upon the death of her mother and was very low. I took such charge as she desired me for which I expect their vengeance.

Rev. William Bentley hid the house keys and Susannah's money from "the hungry expectants".

Judge Jaffrey Pyncheon seems finally to be a blend of Judge Royall Tyler, John Hathorne, and the Rev. Charles Upham---the man primarily responsible for Nathaniel Hawthorne losing his Custom House appointment.

Susannah Ingersoll, Salem Dining Room Portrait.jpg

Susannah Ingersoll

Nathaniel Hawthorne was quite likely intrigued by his own coincidental awareness of both the house of Susannah Ingersoll in Salem, and the Captain John Turner house on Beacon Hill, and by their conflicts. Yet for the purposes of sound scholarship, any connection between Hawthorne's romance written in 1851, and this Salem mansion---as opposed to the Boston mansion---remains unconvincing.

John Turner House, Seaman's Bethel, Salem Harbor.jpg

John Turner House, Seaman's Bethel, Salem Harbor

Circa 1914

This academic conundrum still stands, especially since George Parker Winship, the Widener Librarian at Harvard College also reports that---

Hawthorne's manuscript of "The House of the Seven Gables" contains a letter from the author suggesting possible titles for this romance. The one selected, he wrote, "is rather the best; and has the great advantage that it would puzzle the devil to tell what it means."

John Turner House, 1905 Post Card, Rotograph Company.jpg

John Turner House 1905

John Turner House, Drawing Circa 1899.jpg

Drawing Printed By Harper & Brothers Publishers In 1900

John Turner House, Salem, August 3, 1934.jpg

August 3, 1934


Beacon Hill And School Street


Beacon Street Seen From Site Boston Athenaeum Before 1846

Corner With Somerset Street At Right

Edward Bromfield Mansion At Left


Map Of Boston 1814

Drawn By John Graves Hale
Engraved By T. Wightman

No. 3 Somerset Court
Near The Elizabeth Hunt Palmer Boarding House Site

Boston Athenaeum, Beacon Street.jpg



Seven Gables Site

Greater Boston Real Estate Board

School Street, 1906, Boston.jpg

School Street 1906

Ordered that the street from Mr. Atherton Haughe's to Sentry Hill be laid out and kept open for ever.

Boston Town Meeting, March 30, 1640

School Street, 1858, Boston, Massachusetts.png

School Street In 1858

School Street, Boston, Post Card.jpg

School Street, Parker House.jpg

Parker House, School Street, Boston.png

The Parker House, School Street, Boston

The Saturday Club


Nathaniel Ingersoll Bowditch


Robert Turner's Great Pasture On Beacon Street And Hill

August 28, 1855.

Mr. Editor: --- Leaving "Major" Thompson's triangular pasture, we come upon an extremely large estate of Robert Turner, which must have extended on Beacon street from a point five feet west of Somerset street to and behind the State-House land, to a point 19 feet east of Hancock street. In tracing the Cambridge street pastures of Middlecott, etc., we find that they bound south on Turner.

William Pell, in 1655, sells to Robert Turner (Suff., L. 2, f. 154) 1 1/2 acres of land between said Robert's land east, said Robert's land and land of Thomas Millard south, Jabez Heaton west, and Jeremiah Houchin north. [Houchin owned Middlecott's pasture, through the centre of which runs Bowdoin street.] Jabez Heaton, in 1655, sells to said Turner (Suffolk, L. 2, f. 153) 1 1/2 acres in Centery Hill, between the land of said Robert east and south, the land of Millard south, the land of Edward Hutchinson, Senior, west, the land of Joshua Scottow north, and Jeremiah Houchin north. [Scottow owned the pasture east of Hancock street.] John Leverett, in 1663, conveys to said Turner (Suffolk, L. 9, f. 308) one acre of land in the new field bounded on land late of Nathaniel Eaton east, on Thomas Millard south, on Bosworth west, and on Scotto north. Nathaniel Eaton married Elizabeth, widow of William Pell. [Bosworth owned 5 acres, the easterly moiety of which, extending from 77 feet west of Belknap street to 19 feet east of Hancock street, he sold to Cooke.]

We thus get four acres into Robert Turner, the deed in 1658 bounded in part on land already his. The other southerly abutter, named in the foregoing deeds, Thomas Millard, is the source of title to the State House and land west of it, so that the land already Robert Turner's must have been the whole front part of the land on Beacon street to the State House. It is, therefore, not unlikely that Turner may have owned in all as much as eight acres.

He died in 1664, and his will contains various devises to his children. To Joseph he gives a parcel of ground on the Century Hill, to be in breadth at the front 3 rods, and lie next to my son John's division, and to run through up to Mr. Houchin's (i. e., Middlecott pasture). Also to my son Fairweather a house and land on Centrie Hill, "formerly delivered into his possession"; also a strip of ground about 3 rods in breadth adjoining to Mr. Lyne's (i. e., Lynde or Bulfinch's pasture).

My will is that Ephraim shall have a share at Center Hill next to my son Fayerweather, to be 4 rods broad at the (groat?) and run through with other divisions. Also to John he gives "a portion next to Ephraim's 3 rods broad equal to Joseph's." He then gives certain legacies to be paid out of the rents or sales of the Center Hill and other lands. The inventory mentions the house confirmed to Faoirweather and land, L200. The new frame and all the land at Century Hill, L200.

Penelope, executrix of Robert Turner, in 1666, conveyed to said Ephraim (Lib. 5, f. 188) 3/4 of an acre, bounded south-easterly on the highway to the Common (i. e., Beacon street), north-west on Jeremiah Houchin (i. e., Middlecott pasture), north-east on said Ephraim, south-west on John Turner. She also conveyed land to said Ephraim, in 1667 (Lib., 5, f. 40), another 3/4 of an acre, bounded south-easterly on the highway to the Training place (i. e., Beacon street), south-west [north-west] on said Houchin, and on Joshua Scottow [who owned the 4-acre pasture west of Middlecott's], north-east on said Ephraim, south-west on Joseph Turner. In this deed are recited the devises in the will of her husband, and it is stated that this conveyance is an englarement of Ephraim's portion, and that the alterations made by her deeds to the children were such as tended to the satisfaction of all the brethren. [Her deeds, numerous and complicated as they are, have certainly not proved equally satisfactory to posterity.] She conveyed to her son Joseph, 1670 (Lib. 6, f. 200), all that division that lyeth next the hill, as now divided; bounded with the Common, south, 5 rods and 6 feet; on John Turner, 31 rods and 5 1/2 feet; on Jere. Houchin's pasture, north, 4 rods and 3 feet, and on said John Turner, east, 29 1/2 rods and 3 feet, with a new dwelling-house on it -- and said Joseph conveyed to said John, 1671 (Lib. 7, f. 313), about half an acre, bounded north on Houchin, deceased; south on my land, bordering on Centery hill, west, and on said John, east. Said Penelope conveyed to said John, 1670 (Lib. 6, f. 206), 2 acres of land at Centre hill, bounded on Joseph Turner, east; on Richard Cook, west [i. e., a line 19 feet east of Hancock street], Joshua Scottow, north, and Thomas Millard, south, with a parcel of land 1/2 a rod broad and 30 rods long, bounded east on said John, west on said Joseph, north on Scottow, south on the Common, bordering also on the highway going up to the top of the hill, on the top of which hill lyeth a parcel of land belonging to the town of Boston, i. e., 6 rods square. Ephraim Turner conveyed to John Fairweather, 1681 (Lib. 13, f. 450), all my parcels of land at Beacon Hill, between the land of said Fairweather and my brother John Turner.

The result is, that John Fairweather, by devise and conveyances, gets some large portions of this estate, the easterly of which measured, as we shall find, about 260 feet on Beacon street, by 490 feet in depth.

In conclusion, I feel that I owe an apology for the unrelieved dulness of this article, and trust that my next may prove more lively and interesting. In the meanwhile, as an antidote, buy and read "Sidney Smith's Life."



Captain Robert Turner's Last Will And Testament

The owner of this Beacon Street land was Robert Turner, innkeeper or innholder of the Anchor Tavern on Washington Street---Robert Turner, the father of that same Captain John Turner who built the Salem mansion in 1668. The Anchor was the Washington Street destination for visiting members of the General Court, for country clergy summoned to synod, and to the assembled jurors.

Robert Turner was esteemed as much for his punch as for his pudding, but the track which lay along the back of the Anchor, running from the Exchange in King street and passing by Mrs. Phillips' into Water street, was thence called "Pudding Lane". Pudding Lane it remained until 1766, when it was enlarged, following a demoralizing fire, and finally emerged as modern Devonshire Street.

Robert Turner owned a large pasture of eight acres on Beacon Hill, which he eventually divided into three lots willed to his sons, Captain John Turner, Joseph, and Ephraim Turner, and to his son-in-law, John Fayerweather, husband to Sarah Turner---

It extended from five feet west of Somerset Street, around the State House lot to nineteen feet east of Hancock Street, and back to Derne Street and Ashburton Place. The western part was finally acquired by Thomas Hancock. The sons of Turner inherited in 1664, but eventually the greater part came into the hands of his son-in-law John Fairweather. He died in 1712, and part was bought by David Sears and the next lot westerly by Edward Bromfield in 1742.


Robert Turner.---The Last Will and Testament of Robert Turner, taken as hee spake it, 9th 5mo: 1664. I giue to my Eldest sonne, Ephraim Turner, my new Built house, a part wherof he now Dwelleth in, Reseruing to my Deare wife one roome to herselfe During her life time, either in the new end or the old, at her Owne choyce. Also unto my Sonne, Ephraim, my Garden runninge from the House Downe to the Lane, running upon a straight Line home to Joh. Toppins Fence. I giue unto my sonne, John Turner, all the other part of my now Dwelling house & the Ground below it, Bounded by Mr Coles Fence, the other side to bee so lefte as my sonne Ephraim may haue passage by the yeard and garden as they two may agree, by aduice of my Freinds heerafter named. Out of this part of my house Bequeathed to my sonne John, my will is, that my sonne Fairweather, & my Daughter, shall remayne in the Roomes they now Dwell in, for the time of four yeares next ensuing. To my sonne, Joseph, I give my barne beyond Dauid Titchburnes house; also, a parcell of Ground upon the Hill, to be in breadth at the Front [ ] 3 rods and Lye next to my sonne Johns Diuision, and to Runne through up to Mr Houchyes. Also I Confirme & Bequeathe unto my sonne, Faireweather, the house and land upon the Hill Formerlye Deliuered into his possession. I doe adde unto my sd sonne, Faireweather, a strippe of Ground about 3 Rod in breadth adjoyning unto Mr Lynes; also my will is, my sonne, Ephraim, shall haue a share of Land upon Center hill next my sonne Fairweather, to be four Rod Broade at the grout & Runne through with the other Diusions. Also to my sonne, John Turner, a portion of the sd land next to my sonne, Ephraim, to be three rods Broad Equall with my sonne, Joseph. To my Dear wife, I Bequeathe the thirds of all my houses, Lands and mooueables, and after Debts & Legacyes paid all the Lands abroade, the thirds to my said wife, who I make the sole Executrix of this my Last will and testament. I Giue to the Church of Boston, wherof through Mercy I haue so Long remained a member, L20, to be paid in such pay as my Estate produceth; to the New Church, L5; L5 to ye Church of Cambridg; L10 to Mr Stalham, of Tarling, in Essex; L10 to Capt Oliuers Company; L5 to the other three Companyes, to each 50s; all which Legacyes I will to be paid out of the rents or sales of my Lands at Centrye hill or Muddy riuer, & to bee paid by my Dear wife, with the aduice & assistance of my Ouerseers, within Foure yeares next insuing the Date heerof, at the Discretion of my wife & Ouerseers, whose assistance, aduice & Counsell to my wife & Children I Earnestly Intreate, whose names Follow:---Elder James Penn, Thomas Grubb, William Bartholmew.

Robert Turner.

Test. John Alcocke.

24th Aug. 1664. Elder James Penn and Thomas Grubb deposed.

An Inventory of the Estate and Goods of Robert Turner, deceased, apprised Dec. 16th 1664, by Edward Fletcher, John Hull. Amt. L1221.17s. Mentions, the Dwelling House and Land thereto belonging, the House Confirmed to Mr Fairweather & Land belonging, the New Farme and all the Land at Centry Hill, the Farme House & Lott at Muddye riuer, & other Land there, Interest in Land & Mineralls at Chelmsford, 1/32 part of the Shippe Supplye, &c. Penelope Turner deposed to this Inventory of the estate of her late husband, Jan 31st 1664.

William B. Trask, "Abstracts From the Earliest Wills on Record in the County of Suffolk, Mass.". The New England Historical and Genealogical Register For the Year 1859, Volume XIII. (Boston: Samuel G. Drake, Publisher, 13 Bromfield Street, 1859), pages 9-15.

[In this will Centry Hill or Centrye hill is Sentry Hill, later called Beacon Hill. Muddy River refers to Brookline, Massachusetts]


John Fayerweather's Beacon Hill Land

John Fayerweather was also a substantial landowner in Boston. In 1681, through inheritance from his father-in-law, Robert Turner, and purchase from his brother-in-law, Ephraim Turner, he owned a house on Beacon Hill with a plot of land 260 feet wide fronting on Beacon Street and extending back 490 feet.

The inheritance included also a strip of ground three rods in breadth adjoining Mr. Lynde's. He and his wife Sarah also took over from her father's estate another piece of land between the Bowdoin estate and the State House, measuring 190 feet on Beacon Street, 490 feet on the east line, 140 feet in the rear, and westerly 571 feet on the highway leading to the monument, a total of 2¾ acres.

He sold some of the land in 1703; and when he died in 1712, the Beacon Street frontage was described as extending back to Freeman Street, about 300 feet deep.

An Inventory of the Estate and Goods of Robert Turner, deceased, apprised Dec. 16th 1664, by Edward Fletcher, John Hull. Amt. L1221.17s. Mentions, the Dwelling House and Land thereto belonging, the House Confirmed to Mr Fairweather & Land belonging, the New Farme and all the Land at Centry Hill, the Farme House & Lott at Muddye riuer, & other Land there, Interest in Land & Mineralls at Chelmsford, 1/32 part of the Shippe Supplye, &c. Penelope Turner deposed to this Inventory of the estate of her late husband, Jan 31st 1664.


General Joseph Palmer's 1775 Call To Arms

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To All Friends of American Liberty.

Be it known, that this Morning, before Break of Day, a Brigade, consisting of about 1000 or 1200 men, landed at Phip's Farm, at Cambridge, and marched to Lexington, where they found a Company of our Colony Militia in Arms, upon whom they fired, without any Provocation, and killed six men, and wounded 4 others.

By an Express from Boston, we find, that another Brigade, are now upon their March from Boston, supposed to be about 1000. --------- The Bearer, Tryal Russell, is charged to alarm the Country, quite to Connecticut: And All persons are desired to furnish him with fresh horses, as may be needed. I have spoken with several who have seen the deceased and wounded. Pray let the Delegates from this Colony to Connecticut, see this: they know Col. Fuller, of Brookfield, one of the Delegates.

J. Palmer

one of the Committee of S----y.

This message from General Joseph Palmer of the Committee of Safety was carried by Israel Bissell, Paul Revere, Tryal Russell, and other post riders throughout New England.


Gabled Houses

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Benjamin Marston House

Drawing By John Robinson In 1870, A Neighbor In Salem

Three Story Front Added In 1814

Residents included Philip English, John Touzel, William Hathorne and Mary English his wife, Susannah Touzel the widow of Daniel Hathorne, and Dr. N. Peabody. This house stood at the western corner of Cambridge and Essex streets on two acres of land.

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Thomas Maule House

Drawing By Miss Kate Johnson In Salem In 1850

William Hathorne Married Thomas Maule And Naomi Lindsey In 1670

Thomas Maule and Naomi testified against the witch Bridget Bishop in 1692. They believed that she had caused the death of their child by witchcraft.

Ebenezer Richardson House, Middle Street, Opposite Gallop's Alley February 22, 1770, Now Hanorver And Mechanic Streets.jpg

Ebenezer Richardson House As Appearing On February 22, 1770

Black Border For The Death Of Christopher Snider

Woodcut Printed In Broadside, February 26, 1770

West Side Middle Street (Hanover Street) Close To Beer Lane

Later Owners Of House, Edward Foster, Thomas Greenough

Rebecca Henshaw, Mrs. Ebenezer Richardson In The Doorway

Wooden Head On Pole, "The Affair Of The Wooden Figure"

Diamond-Pane Windows Destroyed Until There Was "No Lead, No Frame"

Theophilus Lillie English Dry Goods And Grocery Store

Store Was Formerly The John Ruck House

New Brick Church, Second Congregational, Old North, Built In 1721

Prelude To The Boston Massacre On March 5, 1770

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Detail From Paul Revere's Engraving

The Bloody Massacre In King-Street

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William Price, 1769 Map Of Boston


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The Great House Of Philip English 1685

From Charles Wentworth Upham's "Salem Witchcraft"

Essex Street, Salem, Massachusetts

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Jared Bourne House

Corner Of Orange (Washington) And Essex Streets, Boston

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Saugus Ironworks House


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Deacon Henry Bridgham House 1670

Corner Of Milk And Congress (Dalton) Streets, Boston

Nathaniel Dearborn Engraving

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Captain Henry Bridgham House 1670

Lawrence Park Drawing 1910 From Studies By C. K. Bolton And Alexander Corbett


Edward Bendall And Robert Turner His Man Servant

Edward Bendall's house stood on the south side of Southack's Court and on the east side of the far north part of Somerset Street, around the corner from Bowdoin Square. A family relation called it a "quaint old wooden building with many gables". It was built by or before 1645.

The Direct Tax of 1798 describes this "brick & wooden dwelling" of three stories covering 1,354 square feet. The Boston Assessors in 1801 called this house an "Elegant Ho.

This site lies less than one block north from Nathaniel Hawthorne's residence during 1838. It was bounded easterly by Sudbury (Court) Street, Tremont Row, and included land in the center of Scollay Square.

Robert Turner, after his arrival in Boston on the ship "Griffin", was admitted to the First Church on September 8, 1633, the clerk noting that "Robert Turnor our brother Edward Bendall's man servant". Turner often witnessed his employer's documents for presentation to the General Court, whose committees frequently met at Turner's Anchor Tavern.

Edward Bendall sold his house and garden with two acres in 1645 to David Yeale (Yale) when he decided to remove temporarily to England because his theological views were at variance with the Boston magistrates in the Anne Hutchinson antinomian controversy.

The house was sold in 1653 to Capt. John Wall, in 1655 a portion was rented by Gov. John Endicott. Captain Wall sold to Edward Shippen in 1678, in 1702 to Capt. Cyprian Southack who laid out in 1720, Southack's Court, later called Howard Street. One illustrious later tenant in the Bendall house was the architect and Boston selectman Charles Bulfinch.

Edward Bendall was a merchant who operated a ferry to Noddle's Island and to ships riding before Boston, beginning in 1638, and a "lighterman", or bargeman, making his living from the shipping traffic in Boston Harbor. Bendall's Dock is now filled in, on the site of Faneuil Hall.

Edward Bendall also constructed a very early diving bell for the recovery of salvage from wrecks, beginning with the 1641 descent into the Boston Harbor channel in order to remove the obsructing wreck of the well-armed "Mary Rose" that sank that spring.

Edward Bendall was baptized at Kersey on 18 October 1607, son of Edward and Jane _____ Bendall [GMB 151-56]. He signed the first covenant of Boston's First Church on August 27, 1630, which indicates that he came with Anne in one of the eleven ships in the Winthrop Fleet. No direct connection to John Winthrop prior to 1630 has been found, other than his residence in Kersey, adjacent to Groton.

Bendall resided in Boston for twenty-four years, although he made a number of trips back to England during that time. His first, brick residence was on the Town Cove, with his warehouse adjoining, facing the tidal flats where Faneuil Hall now sits.

Bendall had three wives, Anne, Marah, Jane Scarlett, and six children, Free Grace, Reforme, More Mercy, Ephraim, and Restore. Bendall returned permanently to England in 1654. Of his six children, only his eldest son, Freegrace, child of his first wife, remained in New England.

Edward Bendall, father of this immigrant, was buried at Kersey on April 6, 1613. On January 16, 1615/6, also at Kersey, his widow Jane married George Scarlett, with whom she had two sons, John and Samuel. In 1635 Jane Scarlett came to New England with her two sons.

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Elizabeth Hunt Palmer Boarding House

Rev. John Cotton House, Edward Bendall House

Somerset Court In 1814

Rev. John Cotton's Antiquated House

The Rev. John Cotton's house, garden, and one and a half acre site was originally in the central part of present Pemberton Square, with his lands extending up the hill as far as Somerset Court, now Ashburton Place. His antiquated residence was considered to be the oldest house in Boston when it was still standing about 1822. The unaltered back part of the house still had its diamond-shaped panes of glass set in lead. Apparently John Cotton's house was torn down by the time of this 1829 map. Cotton Hill itself was not levelled until the early 1830s.


Pemberton Square In 1838

Formerly Cotton Hill


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First Harvard Hall, North Side, Built By 1668

Library, Appartus Chamber For Experimental Philosophy

Destroyed By Fire Tuesday, January 24, 1764

First Harvard Hall, 1668, Drawing By Harold R. Shurtleff.jpg


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George Minot House

Circa 1640

Dorchester, Massachusetts

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Capt. Timothy Prout House, New Brick Church

Middle Street, Wood Lane


The Old Feather Store

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William Henry Bartlett, Sketch From "History Of America"

Facing Dock Square at the corner of North Street stood until a few years ago (1860) one of the most remarkable buildings in the town, known variously as the "Old Feather Store," the "Old Cocked Hat," &c. Luckily there was no doubt as to its age, for it bore the date of its construction, 1680, imprinted in the rough-cast wall of its western gable. The building was of wood, covered with a kind of cement stuck thickly with coarse gravel, bits of broken glass, old junk bottles, &c. The lower story was rather contracted after a usual fashion of the time, and it may have been owing, perhaps, in this case to the limitations of the lot, which on the south and south-west abutted upon the dock; but above this were jetties, that is, projecting stories, and a roof whose gables gave it the fancied resemblance to an old cocked hat. The house was designed for two tenements, and had separate entrances. It was used for many purposes in its long career . . . At one time there was kept here the principal apothecary's shop of the town, while from 1806 for a long series of years it was occupied as a feather store; hence one of its names.

Old Building Where The Tea Plot Was Said To Form In 1773

Old Feather Store, Old Cocked Hat, Engraving By De Witt C. Hitchcock.jpg

Engraving By DeWitt Clinton Hitchcock

Resident In Boston 1847-1850 And 1852

Winter Advertisement For Buffalo Robes

This antiquated, former Pomeroy, Simpson & Sons feather store was demolished on July 10, 1860. The framework was a very hard kind of oak, rough hewn, with three rooms in each story showing the timberwork. The walls contained split cedar laths in pine casings. The front jetty extended six feet, and the others projected about two feet, with pendills at the corners.

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Thomas Stanbury House 1680

The Old Feather Store

Boston, Massachusetts

The exterior cement was filled with "fragments of dark-colored junk bottles" with the date of construction "embedded into the rough-cast cement in Arabic figures, together with various ornamental devices".

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The Old Feather Store

Old Feather Store, Boston, North Street.jpg

Henry R. Blaney, 1896, After An Unknown Artist

Old Feather Store, Joseph H. Brightly, Ballou's Pictorial 1855.jpg

John H. Brightly Drawing

Ballou's Pictorial 1855


The House of the Four Chimneys

Struggling in a narrow literary field, Nathaniel Hawthorne carefully considered the successful career of Washington Irving. In terms of pure imagination, "The House of the Seven Gables" was born from the tales by Irving called "The House of the Four Chimneys" and "The Haunted House".

There are deep and major parallels in themes, characters, names, and buildings in these two tales, which Hawthorne lifted from Washington Irving in his deliberate effort to absorb and to promote the Massachusetts legendry in the manner in which Irving approached New Amsterdam history.


John Groves Hales Survey, 1814, Map Of Boston.jpg


Nathaniel Ingersoll Bowditch, "Gleaner" Series in Boston Transcript, August 28, 1855, "Robert Turner's Great Pasture on Beacon Street and Hill" and "Our Great Men of 100 Years Ago", August 30, 1855. Reprinted in "Report of the Record Commissioners of the City of Boston", Rockwell and Churchill, 1887, Boston Registry Department, Volume 5, pages 104-107.

John Jennings, "Boston: Cradle of Liberty 1630-1776". (Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1947).

Allen Chamberlain, "Beacon Hill; Its Ancient Pastures and Early Mansions". (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, The Riverside Press Cambridge, 1925).

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Captain John Bonner, Cartographer

Captain John Bonner's invaluable maps of Boston are available from the Boston Public Library at

Nathaniel Bradstreet Shurtleff, "A Topographical and Historical Description of Boston. Third Edition. (Boston: City Printers, 1850).

Walter Muir Whitehill, "Boston; A Topographical History". Second Edition. (Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1968).

Charles Shaw, "A Topographical and Historical Description of Boston: From the First Settlement of the Town to the Present Period". (Boston: Oliver Spear, 1817).

British Fortification, Boston, View From Beacon Hill.jpg

Harold & James Kirker, "Bulfinch's Boston 1787-1817". (New York: Oxford University Press, 1964).

Abbott Lowell Cummings, "Charles Bulfinch and Boston's Vanishing West End" in "Old-Time New England" Volume LII, No. 2, October-November 1961.

Samuel Barber, "Boston Common; A Diary of Notable Events, Incidents, and Neighboring Occurrences". (Boston: Christopher Publishing House, 1914). Online at

New England Historic Genealogical Society 1845.jpg

D. Brenton Simons, "Witches, Rakes, and Rogues; True Stories of Scam, Scandal, Murder, and Mayhem in Boston, 1630-1775. (Beverly, Massachusetts: Commonwealth Editions, 266 Cabot Street, 2005).

James H. Stark, "The Loyalists of Massachusetts and The Other Side of the American Revolution". (Boston: W. B. Clarke Co., 26 Tremont Street, 1907). Information about Ebenezer Richardson and Theophilus Lillie.

Steven Wilf, "Placing Blame: Criminal Law and Constitutional Narratives in Revolutionary Boston", in "Crime, History & Societies; International Association for the History of Crime and Criminal Justice", Volume 4, No. 1, 2000. The reliable account of the Ebenezer Richardson trial. Online

View From Beacon Hill, To The Southeast.jpg

Caleb Hopkins Snow, M. D. "History of Boston; The Metropolis of Massachusetts, from Its Origins to the Present Period". Second Edition. (Boston: Abel Bowen, 1828).

Annie Haven Thwing, "The Crooked and Narrow Streets of the Town of Boston 1630-1822". (Boston: Marshall Jones Company, 1920).

Samuel Gardner Drake, "The History and Antiquities of the City of Boston: From Its First Settlement in 1630 to the Year 1670". (Boston: Luther Stevens, 186 Washington Street, 1854).

Samuel Adams Drake, "Old Landmarks and Historic Personages of Boston". (Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1900).

Samuel Adams Drake, "Old Taverns and Tavern Clubs". (Boston: W. A. Butterfield, 59 Bromfield Street, 1917).

The Memorial History Of Boston 1630-1880.jpg

Ticknor & Fields

Justin Winsor, Librarian of Harvard University, Editor, "The Memorial History of Boston, Including Suffolk County, 1630-1880". Four Volumes. (Boston: Ticknor and Company, 1886).

Grandmother Tyler's Book, The Recollections of Mary Palmer Tyler (Mrs. Royall Tyler) 1775~1866, Edited by Frederick Tupper and Helen Tyler Brown. ( New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, The Knickerbocker Press, 1925). Frederick Tupper, Professor of English Language and Literature at the University of Vermont, wrote "The Consolations of History" for May 11, 1910.

Henry Burnham, Brattleboro, Windham County, Vermont; Early History, with Biographical Sketches of some of its Citizens. (Brattleboro, Vermont: Published by D. Leonard, 1880). See especially page 86.

Bruce A. Ronda, "Elizabeth Palmer Peabody; A Reformer on Her Own Terms". (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1999).

Megan Marshall, "The Peabody Sisters: Three Women Who Ignited American Romanticism". (Printed in The United States of America: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2006). The chapter called "Seductions" is a carefully detailed account of Royall Tyler's pedophilia and the Palmer family's various reactions to it.

Page Smith, "John Adams" (Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1962). A careful consideration of the career of Royall Tyler.

Albert Richmond Morcom excavated the Germantown Glassworks in 1955. His report is in the newsletter for the Quincy Historical Society, "Quincy History" for Summer, 1989 available at

James Freeman Clarke, "Autobiography, Diary and Correspondence". Edited by Edward Everett Hale. (Houghton, Mifflin & Company, The Riverside Press, Cambridge, 1892).

Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers, "Memoir of Thomas Curtis Clarke", Volume L, June 1903. (New York: Published by the American Society of Civil Engineers, 1903), page 495.

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A Perspective View of Part of the Commons

Sidney Lawton Smith 1902 Engraving

Christian Remick 1768 Watercolor


Boston Harbor, Long Wharf, 1768, Paul Revere Engraving.jpg


Thomas St. John

Thomas St. John's family is from Pittsfield in the Berkshire Hills of western Massachusetts. He graduated from Drew University, then lived in Montclair, New Jersey before moving to Boston, living on Commonwealth Avenue, Boylston Street, Hemenway Street, and Queensberry Streets, then in Cambridge, Massachusetts before removing to Brattleboro, Vermont.

His has published with the University of Utah's "Western Humanities Review", the Ball State University "Forum", and the alternate news website "Counterpunch".

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